Can the CO₂ in sparkling water make you fat?

Jessica, who saw my TEDx talk about how fat is metabolised to CO₂ and H₂O, wanted to know if the CO₂ in carbonated water can make you fat.

The short answer is, no, but because this is such a frequently asked question, I penned her the long answer, too. Like Jessica, you probably knew most of these facts but here’s how to connect the dots.

Plants make fat by rearranging the atoms in carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis. Olive trees convert CO₂ and H₂O into olive oil, for example. Sunflowers make sunflower oil and palm trees make palm oil, but all those oils are essentially identical apart from some relatively minor differences in the ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. Here’s how plants do it, and why you and I can’t:

STEP 1: is to “suck” water (H₂O) out of the soil and up to the leaves, and then pluck the hydrogen atoms off those water molecules i.e. to literally remove the two “H” atoms from H₂O. Plants use the energy in sunlight and an enzyme called chlorophyll to do this. Because sunlight is required for this biochemistry to proceed, these are called the “light reactions” to distinguish them from the reactions in STEP 2 of photosynthesis, which are called the “dark reactions”. The oxygen atoms removed from the water molecules (i.e. the “O” in H₂O) are the waste product of the “light reactions” and are released into the atmosphere as O₂ via stomata in the leaves.

STEP 2: is to “suck” carbon dioxide out of the air and stick the hydrogen atoms from STEP 1 to these molecules. It takes six CO₂ molecules plus six H₂O molecules to make one glucose molecule, which has the chemical formula C₆H₁₂O₆. While STEP 1 and STEP 2 both involve numerous steps, the entire process can be summarised in this simple equation:

6 CO₂ + 6 H₂O → C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6 O₂

STEP 3: is to convert the glucose molecules to fatty acids. For example, three glucose molecules can be rearranged to make one stearic acid molecule. Stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature and has the chemical formula C₁₈H₃₆O₂. Olive oil is 2-3% stearic acid and around 66% oleic acid, with the chemical formula C₁₈H₃₄O₂. Oleic acid is a mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and is really just stearic acid minus two hydrogen atoms (removing two hydrogen atoms from any fatty acid is called a “desaturation”.)

The energy in olive oil is released when you convert it back to CO₂ and H₂O. That energy was once sunlight, which was used to rip the hydrogen from water molecules and then “stored” by sticking those hydrogen atoms to carbon atoms, which is the closest thing to real, actual, magic that happens on our planet every time the sun is shining. The point is, once you have converted fat to CO₂ and H₂O, only a plant can start the process of putting it back together again.

#SPARKING CURIOSITY: Queensland Early Education and Care Conference

Sparking Curiosity

Hello there my carbon-based friends,

Well what a fantastic crowd you were this morning! Thank you for making me feel so welcome… and how brilliant was that Welcome to Country and super-charged introduction by Julie? Superb.

As promised, here are the links to all the bits and pieces I spoke about. For those of you who are keen for a school visit, please click here for more info about my program.

It was an absolute privilege and super fun treat to speak to you all, so please don’t hesitate to get in touch if I’ve sparked your curiosity and you’re keen to know more about how your body works, where to get liquid nitrogen and dry ice or any other questions you might have.

All the best and see you soon!

Ruben

 

INTRO SLIDES:

ABC Science Online – Surfing Scientist website lesson plans, teacher demos, conundrums

THE SCIENCE OF WEIGHT LOSS

When somebody loses weight, where does the fat go? British Medical Journal paper

TEDxQUT – The Mathematics of Weight Loss my 2013 TEDx talk at the Queensland University of Technology

How much carbon do you exhale per day? Instagram video

8700.com.au this is the NSW Government website I used to balance my diet – oh and, btw, counting calories (kilojoules) is the perfect proxy for counting carbon atoms, because the energy in food is what holds those food atoms together

SOME SUPER EASY AND SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS

Tumblewing Gliders and other flying and twirling things

Apollo 15 Hammer-Feather Drop NASA website, but also available on YouTube

M&M’s / Smarties / Skittles Experiment Play School clip with the full explanation of what’s really going on

Toothpick Star there are so many great excuses to do this “experiment”

Albert Einstein (BBC Biography) a great introduction to the boy, the man and his epoch-changing discoveries

Fun Fly Stick by Unitech Toys (available on eBay, Amazon and many more)

Accelerometer App by Phonelabs.net

How does your smartphone’s accelerometer chip work? by Bosch

Reflector this is the wireless smartphone mirroring app I was using, by AirSquirrels (it’s usually faultless if your WiFi connection is reliable)

LASERS

Laser Danger ABC TV Catalyst story about the dangers of laser pointers

Lasers and tattoos ABC TV Catalyst story about tattoos and laser tattoo removal

NSW Police Laser Law info about NSW laser pointer laws

Restrictions on importing lasers  Commonwealth Department of Immigration and Border Protection

QLD ‘POLAIR’ Helicopter Video 25yo Inala, Brisbane man shining laser at police helicopter

Laser Safety ARPANSA (Australian Radiation Protection & Nuclear Safety Agency)

Laser pointers not toys! 15yo Tasmanian boy who lost 75% of vision

Laser holograms femtosecond lasers could make Star Wars holograms come true

Safe way to pop a balloon inside a balloon with sunlight + magnifying glass version

 

 

YOUTUBE SCIENCE CHANNELS TO SPARK YOUR CURIOSITY

V-Sauce fascinating concepts beautifully explained by Michael Stevens

Minute Physics brilliant fast, short, sharp animations by Henry Reich

Veritasium demos, experiments, interviews by Derek Muller

Numberphile excellent short films all about mathematics by Brady Harran

Periodic Videos chemistry videos from the Uni of Nottingham by Brady Harran

Smarter Every Day all kinds of science by Tara Sandlin

The King of Random some very dangerous demos and experiments by Grant Thomson

The Slo Mo Guys amazing slow motion videos by Gavin Free and Dan Gruchy

NSW Public Schools #STEM Symposium

Tweet by Mr MuzmonsterDear NSW Public School STEM teachers,

Thank you all again for the invitation to speak at the 2017 NSW Public Schools STEM Symposium! I hope you all made it home safely in the crazy weather.

Here are the links to the websites, apps, and demonstrations from my presentation. I hope they will serve as the seeds to many exciting, mind-blowing lessons for your students and fun classroom experiences for you.

Please don’t hesitate to get in touch with me if you’d like any more information about anything we discusses, or anything we didn’t. Cherie Stone has my direct contact details and you are all welcome to email or call, whenever you like.

Good luck and best wishes!

Ruben

INTRO SLIDES:

ABC Science Online – Surfing Scientist website lesson plans, teacher demos, conundrums

School Visits how to book a science show for your school

Slot Car + Sparkler vs Hydrogen Balloon Prof Slo & Dr Mo on Roller Coaster

Ping Pong Ball Explosion on ABC3’s Studio 3

Ping Pong Ball Rubbish Bin Explosion University of Plymouth version

Make a Rainbow buy cheap diffraction grating film (Amazon, also available on eBay)

YOUTUBE SCIENCE CHANNELS KIDS LOVE

V-Sauce fascinating concepts beautifully explained by Michael Stevens

Minute Physics brilliant fast, short, sharp animations by Henry Reich

Veritasium demos, experiments, interviews by Derek Muller

Numberphile excellent short films all about mathematics by Brady Harran

Periodic Videos chemistry videos from the Uni of Nottingham by Brady Harran

Smarter Every Day all kinds of science by Tara Sandlin

The King of Random some very dangerous demos and experiments by Grant Thomson

The Slo Mo Guys amazing slow motion videos by Gavin Free and Dan Gruchy

iSTEM – science demos on your smartphone

Reflector wireless smartphone mirroring by AirSquirrels

Free web-based accelerometer app by Phonelabs.net

Doppler effect with a sock on the ABC Surfing Scientist website

↳ Sonic (for iPhone) the free sine wave generator app I use

FLIR One infrared thermal imaging camera

Smartphone compass VS electric current  repeat Oersted’s epoch-changing experiment with a coat hanger and a battery (this is how electromagnetism was first discovered)

“Seeing” infrared light shine any remote for any device at a digital camera and “see” the infrared diode (on smartphones, use the “FaceTime” camera, not the front camera which has a filter to block out infrared)

Newton’s Laws at 300fps an embroidery hoop trick, filmed at 300 frames per second

35cm embroidery hoop available for $6.00 at Spotlight (also Lincraft and others)

LASERS

Laser Danger ABC TV Catalyst story about the dangers of laser pointers

Lasers and tattoos ABC TV Catalyst story about tattoos and laser tattoo removal

NSW Police Laser Law info about NSW laser pointer laws

Restrictions on importing lasers  Commonwealth Department of Immigration and Border Protection

QLD ‘POLAIR’ Helicopter Video 25yo Inala, Brisbane man shining laser at police helicopter

Laser Safety ARPANSA (Australian Radiation Protection & Nuclear Safety Agency)

Laser pointers not toys! 15yo Tasmanian boy who lost 75% of vision

Laser holograms femtosecond lasers could make Star Wars holograms come true

Pop a balloon inside a balloon “safe” sunlight + magnifying glass version

THE SCIENCE OF WEIGHT LOSS

When somebody loses weight, where does the fat go? British Medical Journal paper

TEDxQUT – The Mathematics of Weight Loss my 2013 TEDx talk at the Queensland University of Technology

BUSINESS INSIDER – Scientists only just figured out where fat goes this is the article’s original headline, since changed

How much carbon do you exhale per day? Instagram video

8700.com.au NSW Government website I used to balance my diet

Where do kilojoules and calories go?

 

Only one rule matters in weight loss. You need to eat 32,000 kilojoules less than your body expends for every kilogram you want to lose (7700 calories).

The science behind this rock-solid fact of nature is more than half a century old but there is growing army of intelligent people who don’t believe it because they don’t understand how it works. The reason for the growing confusion about the good old “energy in, energy out” equation is blindingly obvious; the energy in question is invisible.

The only kilojoules and calories you will ever “see” are the ones that enter your eyeballs and land on your retina. All the other kinds are imperceptible to the eye. A 100 watt light bulb radiates 2 joules per second worth of visible light, and 98 joules per second of the infrared kind. You can feel that infrared light because it warms your skin, which is why we call it heat.

The alien in the movie Predator starring Arnold Schwarzenegger could see heat but while that creature was pure fiction, animals that can “see” infrared light are not. Snakes of the viper and constrictor variety and vampire bats have pit organs that can detect this form of radiation. Fire-seeking beetles that lay their eggs in freshly burnt trees have similar organs and some butterflies have ‘thermoreceptors’ on their antennae and wings to protect them from heat damage. Humans have the same protein involved in biological infrared imaging and sensing, known as the “wasabi receptor”.

All warm animals emit infrared light, which makes the ability to detect this part of the electromagnetic spectrum very useful for hunting and for search and rescue missions. Cameras that can “see” the thermal emissions of living things were once prohibitively expensive but recent advances in technology have made these devices small and affordable enough to plug into a smartphone. This is very good news for the next generation of high school science teachers and their students, because they can use these cameras to “see” where all the energy that vanishes from their experiments and demonstrations “goes”.

The kilojoules on the “energy in” side of the weight loss mantra are conspicuous enough. It’s how the ones on the “energy out” side sneak back out that make life so difficult for the doctors and dietitians who prescribe this age-old remedy for overweight and obesity.

You typically lose about 60 joules per second as infrared light. This has been known for donkey’s years but the first person to measure it directly with a radiometer was a CSIRO scientist called Peter Funk, who reported his extraordinary achievement in a succinct letter to the journal Nature in 1964.

About 30 joules per second are carried away by water molecules that have evaporated from the lungs and skin. You lose 2257 kilojoules for every litre of water that evaporates from your body. Chemists and physicists refer to this energy as the enthalpy of vaporisation.

Another 10 joules per second are lost to the environment via conduction and convection. Those are the joules that make chairs warm when you sit on them. Douglas Adams,  who also wrote the Hitchhiker’s Guid to the Galaxy, came up with an excellent word for the energy people leave on chairs in The Meaning of Liff, which he co-authored with John Lloyd:

Shoeburyness: “The vague uncomfortable feeling you get when sitting on a seat that is still warm from somebody else’s bottom”

The convection currents rising above you carry heat away but they, too, usually remain invisible, except on really cold, rainy nights, when you sometimes see wisps of water vapour rising from hot skin. The heat that’s causing that was once in food.

scrum_mist

scrum_mist

Altogether, an average person loses a total of about 100 joules per second by infrared radiation, evaporation and conduction and convection. The precise figure depends on the temperature of the surroundings and physical activity but if you multiply it by the number of seconds in a day, you find that the average adult converts 86,400,000 joules of food energy to heat per day.

24 hours × 60 minutes × 60 seconds = 86,400 seconds

And what’s the recommended daily intake for adults? Well what a coincidence, it’s 8700 kilojoules! That’s the same as 200o Calories.

About half of the food energy you eat is converted directly to heat by chemical reactions that happen inside your cells. The other half is shuttled through a series of convoluted metabolic pathways and converted to the chemical bond energy in a magnificent substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This energy can then be used by cells to do things like rearrange amino acids to grow new bone, hair or muscle, make enzymes, power a muscle cell’s twitch, fire a neurone or do any of the other amazing things you can do, but here’s the thing: all of the energy that makes it into ATP is also ultimately transformed into HEAT.

It might be starting to dawn on you by now that making yourself hot or cold could potentially speed up your metabolism and lead to faster energy loss, and therefore weight loss. And you’re right! Lowering the thermostat in buildings has been touted as a potential solution to the obesity crisis, but that’s not going to do much for people living in warm cities like Mexico or Sydney.

And if you’re wondering whether or not obesity might be caused by some kind of metabolic disorder that prevents a person from radiating their heat, you’re doing a bit more wishful thinking. Any disorder of thermoregulation is potentially life-threatening.

There’s so much more to all of this that you can do a whole three year university degree about it, called a Bachelor of Science majoring in biochemistry. And it would be very helpful if the folks who reckon the good old “energy in, energy out” mantra doesn’t work went and did precisely that!

 

 

#SciMathConf2016

Dear #scimathconf2016,

Thank you for the opportunity to spread some of my unbridled enthusiasm for STEM education and evidence-based optimism for the future with you.

As promised, here are the links to peer-reviewed papers and further reading to cheer you up about the future and being a teacher in a 2016.

Introduction

When somebody loses weight, where does the fat go? The BMJ paper published 16 Dec 2014 (Open Access)

Big Fat Myths Random House Australia

www.8700.com.au this is the free online calculator I used to lose 16 kilograms in 2013, by simply balancing my own diet (energy in Vs energy out)

ABC Science Online: Surfing Scientist my ABC website with lots of DIY demonstrations, experiments and lesson ideas stolen and borrowed from all over the place

Proof that Nobel Prize winning scientists believe teachers are invaluable Brian Schmidt donates prize money to Primary Connections


 

Pollyanaism versus Negativity Bias

Pollyanna Wikipedia entry about the best-selling 1913 novel by Eleanor H. Porter

The Pollyanna principle (also called Pollyannaism or positivity bias) Wikipedia

The Pollyanna principle: Selectivity in language, memory, and thought Matlin, M.W. and Stang, D.J., 1978. Schenkman Pub. Co..

Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion Rozin, P. and Royzman, E.B., 2001. Personality and social psychology review, 5(4), pp.296-320.


 

Optimism #1 – MORE PEACEFUL: The decline of violence

The Better Angels of Our Nature  the book by Professor Steven Pinker (2011)

VIDEO: The Better Angels of Our Nature Steven Pinker at the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize Forum

VIDEO: The surprising decline in violence Steven Pinker’s 20min TED Talk

Violence Vanquished essay featuring the two graphs in my slides

The News: A User’s Manual Allain de Botton


Optimism #2 – SMARTER: The Flynn Effect

The Mean IQ of Americans: Massive Gains 1932 to 1978 James Flynn (1984) Psychological Bulletin Vol. 95 No. 1

The Flynn Effect  summary of the hypotheses by Indiana University’s Dr Jonathan Plucker

Why our IQ levels are higher than our grandparents’ Prof James Flynn’s TED Talk


Optimism #3 – NICER: The Bystander Effect

“The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies.” Fischer, P. et al. (2011) Psychological bulletin Vol. 137 No.4 *subscription required

Bystander Effect YouTube video (3min 35sec)

The Murder of Kitty Genovese Wikipedia page with citations to further reading


Optimism #4 – RICHER: Our spending habits

Retail Trade – Australian Bureau of Statistics Publication 8501.0

The malls are changing … its massage, nails, dining and edutainment Robert Harley Financial Review, 18 November 2015.

Beyond the polish Walsh, S.A., 2012. Journal of Law and Policy, 21, p.243. [THE NOTEWORTHY QUOTE: “for every one Starbucks retail outlet in the United States, there are more than four nail salons”]


Optimism #5 – HEALTHIER: Life expectancy

Australians’ life expectancy, 1881 to 2013 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Control, elimination, eradication and re-emergence of infectious diseases: getting the message right 2006 WHO Bulletin editorial

Hans Rossling’s TED Talks amazing public health statistics


Optimism #6 – TECHNOLOGY: Better, faster, cheaper

Slow motion smartphone video (embroidery hoop vs pen)

Pop a balloon inside a balloon with a magnifying glass

Lasers in Medicine International Society for Optics and Photonics Open access article


 Optimism #7 – SCIENCE: Unsolved Mysteries

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks why do we die?

FUN FLY STICK: play with electromagnetism electromagnetism both repels and attracts but gravity only ever sucks. Why?

DIY Fun Fly Stick make your own (the silvered plastic can sometimes be found in bait and tackle shops in the DIY fly fishing area,  but Mylar tinsel won’t work)

Solar Spectrum High resolution image of the dark lines of missing sunlight, which are explained by quantum electrodynamics

Dear #ECTC2016 Teachers,

Carlos and Ruben

Thank you so much for giving me the opportunity to share some of my unbridled, evidence-based optimism for the future with you.

Life really is great. Kids love it… which is why they’re so much fun to work with. I hope you enjoy your daily dose of their boundless enthusiasm, their intense passion for learning and simply being in their company as much as I have for  20+ years. You have the best job in the world.

As I promised, here are the links to the topics I covered this morning and to some further reading from the bottomless pit of knowledge.

I hope to bump into you again but, in the meantime, all the very best in your careers.

Kinds regards,

Ruben

Introduction and demonstrations

When you lose weight where does the fat go? The BMJ paper published 16 Dec 2014 (Open Access)

Big Fat Myths by Ebury Books in bookstores on 19 September 2016

The mathematics of weight loss TEDx Talk where do the kilograms go? (This is my rather clunky first attempt at explaining what I eventually published in The BMJ.)

www.8700.com.au this is the free online calculator I used to balance my energy in/energy out equation in 2013

ABC Science Online: Surfing Scientist my website, packed with ideas I’ve nicked from all over the place

Professor Slo & Dr Mo: Slot Car vs hydrogen balloon

Curiosity Show YouTube Channel

Reminisce with Prof Julius Sumner Miller

Royal Institution Christmas Lectures®


CHEER UP! Evidence-based optimism

Optimism #1 – MORE PEACEFUL

The Better Angels of Our Nature  the book by Professor Steven Pinker (2011)

Steven Pinker’s 2015 Nobel Peace Forum Presentation with updates on some of the recent calamities

The surprising decline in violence Steven Pinker’s 20min TED Talk

Steven Pinker: A History of Violence 37min talk at the Singularity Summit

Violence Vanquished essay featuring the two graphs in my slides

The News: A User’s Manual Allain de Botton’s timely book about how to consume the news


 Optimism #2 – SMARTER: The Flynn Effect

The Mean IQ of Americans: Massive Gains 1932 to 1978 James Flynn (1984) Psychological Bulletin Vol. 95 No. 1

The Flynn Effect  summary of the hypotheses by Indiana University’s Dr Jonathan Plucker

Why our IQ levels are higher than our grandparents’ Prof James Flynn’s TED Talk


 Optimism #3 – NICER: The Bystander Effect

“The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies.” Fischer, P. et al. (2011) Psychological bulletin Vol. 137 No.4 *subscription required

Bystander Effect YouTube video (3min 35sec)

The Murder of Kitty Genovese Wikipedia page with good citations to further reading


Optimism #4 – RICHER

Retail Traded (Australian Bureau of Statistics) Lots of delicious data

Nail salons and massage parlours the new growth industries Weekend Financial Review article

Tattoos Catalyst story about getting inked and un-inked


Optimism #5 – HEALTHIER

Life expectancy trends Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Control, elimination, eradication and re-emergence of infectious diseases: getting the message right 2006 WHO Bulletin editorial

Hans Rossling’s TED Talks amazing public health statistics


Optimism #6 – TECHNOLOGY: Better, faster, cheaper

Slow motion smartphone video (embroidery hoop vs pen)

Pop a balloon inside a balloon with a magnifying glass

Lasers in Medicine International Society for Optics and Photonics Open access article


 Optimism #7 – SCIENCE: Unsolved Mysteries

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks why do we die?

Fun Fly Stick get one!

DIY Fun Fly Stick make your own (I once found the silvered plastic in a bait and tackle store in the DIY fly fishing area… Mylar Xmas tinsel won’t work)

Brian Schmidt donates $100k of his Nobel Prize money to Primary Connections

Gosford City Learning Community

Dear Gosford City Learning Community,

Thank you all again for the privilege of letting me share my enthusiasm for #STEM, optimism for the future and appreciation for Australia’s free public education system with you as we prepare to launch into Term 3, 2016.

Wishing you all a very happy and fantastically productive Education Week, Book WeekNational Science Week.

Keep smiling and bye for now,

Ruben

Introduction and demonstrations

Droids, Drones and Robots National Science Week 2016

Bulldozer production line Red Viking Engineering

Robotic forklifts (Automatic Guided Vehicles) NDC Automation

Blue Horizon Rocket video of third flight on 2 April 2016

Curiosity Show YouTube Channel

Reminisce with Prof Julius Sumner Miller

Royal Institution Christmas Lectures®

When you lose weight where does the fat go? my paper published in The BMJ on 16 Dec 2014 (open access, free to download)

The mathematics of weight loss TEDx Talk my first attempt at explaining where the mass goes when you lose weight

Big Fat Myths Ebury Books in bookstores this September

Brian Schmidt donates $100k of his Nobel Prize money to Primary Connections

Optimism #1 – MORE PEACEFUL

The Better Angels of Our Nature  the book by Professor Steven Pinker (2011)

Steven Pinker’s 2015 Nobel Peace Forum Presentation with updates on some of the recent calamities

The surprising decline in violence Steven Pinker’s 20min TED Talk

Steven Pinker: A History of Violence 37min talk at the Singularity Summit

Violence Vanquished essay featuring the two graphs in my slides

The News: A User’s Manual Allain de Botton’s timely book about how to consume the news


 Optimism #2 – SMARTER: The Flynn Effect

The Mean IQ of Americans: Massive Gains 1932 to 1978 James Flynn (1984) Psychological Bulletin Vol. 95 No. 1

The Flynn Effect  summary of the hypotheses by Indiana University’s Dr Jonathan Plucker

Why our IQ levels are higher than our grandparents’ Prof James Flynn’s TED Talk


 Optimism #3 – NICER: The Bystander Effect

“The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies.” Fischer, P. et al. (2011) Psychological bulletin Vol. 137 No.4 *subscription required

Bystander Effect YouTube video (3min 35sec)

The Murder of Kitty Genovese Wikipedia page with good citations to further reading


Optimism #4 – RICHER

Retail Traded (Australian Bureau of Statistics) Lots of delicious data

Nail salons and massage parlours the new growth industries Weekend Financial Review article

Tattoos Catalyst story about the science of tattoos and tattoo removal


Optimism #5 – HEALTHIER

Life expectancy trends Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Control, elimination, eradication and re-emergence of infectious diseases: getting the message right 2006 WHO Bulletin editorial

Hans Rossling’s TED Talks amazing public health statistics


Optimism #6 – TECHNOLOGY: Better, faster, cheaper

Laser danger the danger of high powered laser pointers

NSW Laser pointer laws

Pop a balloon inside a balloon with a magnifying glass

Lasers in Medicine International Society for Optics and Photonics Open access article


 Optimism #7 – SCIENCE: Unsolved Mysteries

Here are just a few of Nature’s puzzles that are yet to be solved:

The Millennium Problems The Clay Mathematics Institute’s unsolved problems with a $1,000,000 prize

What is dark matter and dark energy? Cosmos Magazine article

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks A thought-provoking book about cancer, ethics and why we die by Rebecca Skloot

Why do we sleep? BBC Article (18 March 2016)

Where is all the antimatter? ABC Science Online (23 June 2016)

The story of antimatter CERN Timelines